Alzheimers Disease Sample Paper

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Alzheimers Disease Sample Paper


Alzheimer’s is a slowly progressing neurologic disease characterised by alterations in the brain leading to the damage and loss of neurons and neuron connections (Butterfield & Boyd-Kimball, 2018). These consequently affect an individual’s power to recall and think, and eventually the person loses his or her ability to live alone without depending on others. Scientists still have not well established the cause of Alzheimer’s disease, but the popular belief is that a variety of factors play a role in developing the disease.

Risk factors.

The risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease include:

  • The risk of developing the condition increases with an increase in age. The condition has been found to begin after sixty-five years in most individuals (Boyle et al., 2018).
  • The disease has been found to be more prevalent among women as compared to their male counterparts.
  • Genetic pre-disposition. People with a family history of Alzheimer’s, especially where a parent or a fellow sibling have the condition are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s as compared to people who have no family history of the condition (Nazarian, Yashin & Kulminski, 2019).
  • Head injury. Research work has established a close connection between Alzheimer’s disease and prominent traumatic head injuries (Li et al., 2017).
  • Elevated cholesterol levels and a raised blood pressure have also been shown to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Clinical manifestations

According to Mace and Robins (2017), individuals suffering from Alzheimer’s experience cognitive symptoms that include mental decline, trouble in comprehension and understanding, delusions, loss of memory, confusion and disorientation. Changes in mood including mood swings and being slow to anger are also present. Hallucinations, depression and disorganized speech are some of the presentations seen in Alzheimer’s disease.


The main cause of the disease is the deposition of extracellular beta-amyloid and the development of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (Kim et al., 2018). The neurofibrillary tangles prevent the exchange of nutrients and other important compounds between one cell and another and this gradually leads to shrinkage of the brain. The depositing of beta-amyloid and the formation of tangles causes a continuous process that ends in the destruction of the neuronal cells, the loss of synapses and deficiencies in the neurotransmitter, resulting in the development of symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s.

My role as a nurse.

After identifying the risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease, I would assist my patient in reducing the risk of developing the condition. Ensuring that my patients follow a good nutrition plan and following up to ensure that they exercise regularly is one of the ways of preventing the condition since a good diet and exercise are key. Ensuring that my patient quits smoking and reduces or stops alcohol consumption is key in reducing the risk of developing the condition. Ensuring my patient’s compliance to medication and especially medication related to any cardiovascular conditions is also key as cardiovascular complications have been shown to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.


  • Boyle, P. A., Yu, L., Leurgans, S. E., Wilson, R. S., Brookmeyer, R., Schneider, J. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2018). Attributable risk of Alzheimer’s dementia due to age-related neuropathologies. Annals of Neurology, 85(1),114-124doi:10.1002/ana.25380
  • Butterfield, D. A., & Boyd-Kimball, D. (2018). Oxidative stress, amyloid-β peptide, and altered key molecular pathways in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 62(3), 1345-1367
  • Kim, D. K., Park, J., Han, D., Yang, J., Kim, A., Woo, J., Kim, Y., & Mook-Jung, I. (2018). Molecular and functional signatures in a novel Alzheimer’s disease mouse model assessed by quantitative proteomics. Molecular Neurodegeneration, 13(1), 1-19doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0234-4
  • Li, Y., Li, Y., Li, X., Zhang, S., Zhao, J., Zhu, X., & Tian, G. (2017). Head injury as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 observational studies. PLoS ONE, 12(1): e0169650.
  •  Nazarian, A., Yashin, A.I. & Kulminski, A.M. (2019). Genome-wide analysis of genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease and related sex disparities. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy 11(1), 5.
  • Mace, N. L., & Rabins, P. V. (2017). The 36-hour day: A family guide to caring for people who have Alzheimer disease, other Dementias, and memory loss. JHU Press. Accessed February 17 from